Executive Summary
Long papers containing five and more pages require an executive summary, i.e. a concise summary of the key points reflected in the main body. It should briefly answer what makes the topic acute and important, why it has been chosen, enumerate the key results and findings, as well as explain how they can be applied and/or improved. An executive summary usually takes approximately 100-150 words, though might require more as per the instructions. Please avoid direct repetitions of the information mentioned in the main body of the paper. Attentiveness to detail is another typical mistake that should be avoided, as it complicates the reading while it should be simple and clear.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 4

Background. 4

Formatting and Referencing Rules 4

Conclusion. 4

Reference List 5

Title of the Paper


Please note that unless required in the instructions, the headers should be used only in five-or-more-page papers. The introduction of a paper should end with a strong, debatable thesis statement or a research question and approximately take 10% of the required word count. Please note that the title page, headers, reference list, table of contents, abstract, and appendices are not counted towards the required word count.


Please not that there is no set manual for Harvard as there is for some referencing and formatting styles. Harvard is a style for citing sources by giving an authorís surname and a publication date (Pears & Graham, 2016). Only direct quotes require a page number. Do not leave a paragraph with a citation at the end. Every paragraph should end with a transition sentence serving as a bridge between two adjacent paragraphs.

Formatting and Referencing Rules
There are several variations of Harvard style used in different countries. This template reflects the most common formatting and referencing rules but is not the only one in use. It is recommended to use this template unless the Client asks for specific Harvard formatting requirements to be followed or attaches a Harvard style/guide acknowledged by their university. 
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the surname of the first author of each source. A blank line should be used after every reference. Left indentation is not required. 

Please note that there is no page brake before the conclusion section, i.e. it should not be presented on a separate page. It should restate the thesis statement or answer the research question, summarize the key ideas presented in the paper, and contain no new or outside information, unless predictions and/or personal viewpoint are required in the instructions. Conclusion usually comprises 10% of the required word count.

Reference List

Author, A. and Author, B.C., 2016. Title of the book. Palgrave Macmillan.